Military branches:

Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2013)

Military service age and obligation:

18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; males required to undergo compulsory military training between ages 16 and 55; males can enroll in military schools from at least age 15 (2012)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,012,790

females age 16-49: 2,020,618 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,490,267

females age 16-49: 1,675,083 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 76,430

female: 74,038 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

country comparison to the world: 101

Transnational Issues:  TAJIKISTAN

Disputes - international:

in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

stateless persons: 2,300 (2012)

Illicit drugs:

major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates