Military:  Chad

Military branches:

Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT): Ground Forces (l'Armee de Terre, AdT), Chadian Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air Tchadienne, AAT), National Gendarmerie, National and Nomadic Guard of Chad (GNNT) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:

20 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service, with a 3-year service obligation; 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2012)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,090,244

females age 16-49: 2,441,321 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,183,242

females age 16-49: 1,395,811 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 128,723

female: 128,244 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

country comparison to the world:  93   

Transnational Issues:  Chad

Disputes - international:

since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 306,960 (Sudan) (2012); 83,751 (Central African Republic) (2013)

IDPs: 90,000 (majority are in the east) (2012)

Trafficking in persons:

current situation: Chad is a source, transit, and destination country for children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the trafficking problem is mainly internal and frequently involves family members entrusting children to relatives or intermediaries in return for promises of education, apprenticeships, goods, or money; child trafficking victims are subjected to involuntary domestic servitude, forced cattle herding, forced begging, involuntary agricultural labor, or commercial sexual exploitation; some Chadian girls who travel to larger towns in search of work are forced into prostitution; in 2012, Chadian children were identified in some government military training centers and among rebel groups

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Chad does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has made a limited commitment to increased anti-trafficking law enforcement but continues to lack formal victim identification procedures; draft revisions to Chad's penal code that would prohibit child trafficking and provide protection for victims were not enacted for the third consecutive year; the government continues its nationwide campaign on human rights issues, including human trafficking, and high-ranking officials, such as the president and prime minister, are speaking out publicly against human trafficking (2013)