Military:  Egypt

Military branches:

Army, Navy, Egyptian Air Force, Egyptian Air Defense Command (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya il-Misriya) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:

18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation - 18-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation; voluntary enlistment possible from age 16 (2012)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 21,012,199

females age 16-49: 20,145,021 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 18,060,543

females age 16-49: 17,244,838 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 783,405

female: 748,647 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

country comparison to the world: 62

Transnational Issues:  Egypt

Disputes - international:

Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 70,028 (West Bank and Gaza Strip); 12,124 (Sudan); 5,703 (Iraq) (2012); 126,081 (Syria); 7,957 (Somalia) (2013)

stateless persons: 60 (2012)

Illicit drugs:

transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations