Military:  Ghana

Military branches:

Ghana Army, Ghana Navy, Ghana Air Force (2012)

Military service age and obligation:

18-26 years of age for voluntary military service, with basic education certificate; no conscription; must be HIV/AIDS negative (2012)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 6,268,191

females age 16-49: 6,194,339 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 4,136,406

females age 16-49: 4,220,761 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 267,896

female: 260,992 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

country comparison to the world: 87

Transnational Issues:  Ghana

Disputes - international:

disputed maritime border between Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 5,156 (Liberia) (2012); 8,532 (Cote d'Ivoire; flight from 2010 post-election fighting) (2013)

Illicit drugs:

illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money laundering problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use