Military:  Kazakhstan

Military branches:

Kazakhstan Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Mobile Forces, Air Defense Forces (2013)

Military service age and obligation:

18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 2 years; 19 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; military cadets in intermediate (ages 15-17) and higher (ages 17-21) education institutes are classified as military service personnel (2012)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 4,163,629

females age 16-49: 4,179,051 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,909,999

females age 16-49: 3,528,169 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 125,322

female: 119,541 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

country comparison to the world: 122

Transnational Issues:  Kazakhstan

Disputes - international:

Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries commenced with Uzbekistan in 2004 and with Turkmenistan in 2005; ongoing demarcation with Russia began in 2007; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

stateless persons: 6,935 (2012)

Illicit drugs:

significant illicit cultivation of cannabis for CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; significant consumer of opiates