Military:  MACEDONIA

Military branches:

Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM; includes General Staff and subordinate Joint Operational Command, Training and Doctrine Command, Special Operations Regiment) (2012)

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2013)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 532,196

females age 16-49: 511,964 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 443,843

females age 16-49: 426,251 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 16,144

female: 14,920 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

6% of GDP (2005 est.)

country comparison to the world: 11

Transnational Issues:  MACEDONIA

Disputes - international:

Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

stateless persons: 905 (2012)

Illicit drugs:

major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement