Military:  PANAMA

Military branches:

no regular military forces; Panamanian Public Security Forces (subordinate to the Ministry of Public Security), comprising the National Police (PNP), National Air-Naval Service (SENAN), National Border Service (SENAFRONT) (2013)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 890,006 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 731,254

females age 16-49: 728,329 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 32,142

female: 30,879 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1% of GDP (2012)

country comparison to the world: 127

Military - note:

on 10 February 1990, the government of then President ENDARA abolished Panama's military and reformed the security apparatus by creating the Panamanian Public Forces; in October 1994, Panama's Legislative Assembly approved a constitutional amendment prohibiting the creation of a standing military force but allowing the temporary establishment of special police units to counter acts of "external aggression"

Transnational Issues:  PANAMA

Disputes - international:

organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia operate within the remote border region with Panama

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 15,723 (Colombia) (2012)

Illicit drugs:

major cocaine transshipment point and primary money-laundering center for narcotics revenue; money-laundering activity is especially heavy in the Colon Free Zone; offshore financial center; negligible signs of coca cultivation; monitoring of financial transactions is improving; official corruption remains a major problem