Military:  POLAND

Military branches:

Polish Armed Forces: Land Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Aviation Forces, Special Forces (2013)

Military service age and obligation:

18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription phased out in 2009-12; service obligation shortened from 12 to 9 months in 2005; women only allowed to serve as officers and noncommissioned officers (2013)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 9,531,855

females age 16-49: 9,298,593 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 7,817,556

females age 16-49: 7,766,361 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 221,889

female: 211,172 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

country comparison to the world: 72

Transnational Issues:  POLAND

Disputes - international:

as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 14,938 (Russia) (2012)

stateless persons: 10,825 (2012)

Illicit drugs:

despite diligent counternarcotics measures and international information sharing on cross-border crimes, a major illicit producer of synthetic drugs for the international market; minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe