Military:  SINGAPORE

Military branches:

Singapore Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (includes Air Defense) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:

18-21 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 1/2 years of age for volunteers; 2-year conscript service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 40 (enlisted) or age 50 (officers) (2012)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,255,902 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,018,839

females age 16-49: 1,087,134 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 27,098

female: 25,368 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

country comparison to the world: 32

Transnational Issues:  SINGAPORE

Disputes - international:

disputes persist with Malaysia over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait

Illicit drugs:

drug abuse limited because of aggressive law enforcement efforts; as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering