Military:  ZAMBIA

Military branches:

Zambian National Defense Force (ZNDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, National Service (paramilitary youth organization) (2012)

Military service age and obligation:

national registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 3,041,069

females age 16-49: 2,948,291 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,745,656

females age 16-49: 1,688,670 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 158,592

female: 158,805 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

country comparison to the world: 79

Transnational Issues:  ZAMBIA

Disputes - international:

in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 14,871 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 5,963 (Rwanda) (2012)

Illicit drugs:

transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis